C1: Particles

C1.1 The particle model

C1.1a Describe the main features of the particle model in terms of states of matter: i) solids ii) liquid iii) gas .

C1.1b Explain in terms of the particle model the distinction between physical changes and chemical changes in  states of matter.

C1.1c explain the limitations of the particle model in relation to changes of state when particles are represented by inelastic spheres (e.g. like bowling balls) Particles can vary in many ways, such as size, mass and their power of attraction , bonding, , interatomic forces. , melting and boiling points, lattice arrangements

 C1.2 Atomic structure

C1.2a describe how and why the atomic model has changed over time

C1.2b describe the atom as a positively charged nucleus surrounded by negatively charged electrons, with the nuclear radius much smaller than that of the atom and with most of the mass in the nucleus

the models of Dalton, Thompson, Rutherford, Bohr, Geiger and Marsden

C1.2c recall the typical size (order of magnitude) of atoms and small molecules

the concept that typical atomic radii and bond length are in the order of 10-10m

C1.2d recall relative charges and approximate relative masses of protons, neutrons and electrons.

definitions of an ion, atomic number, mass number and an isotope, also the standard notation to represent these