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 Chemical Reactions

C3: Chemical reactions

C3.1 Introducing chemical reactions

CM3.1i arithmetic computation and ratio when determining empirical formulae, balancing equations

CM3.1ii calculations with numbers written in standard form when using the Avogadro constant

CM3.1iii provide answers to an appropriate number of significant figures

CM3.1iv convert units where appropriate particularly from mass to moles

C3.1a use chemical symbols to write the formulae of elements and simple covalent and ionic compounds

C3.1b use the names and symbols of common elements and compounds and the principle of conservation of mass to write formulae and balanced chemical equations and half equations

C3.1c use the names and symbols of common elements from a supplied periodic table to write formulae and balanced chemical equations where appropriate to include the first 20 elements, Groups 1, 7, and 0 and other common elements included within the specification

C3.1d use the formula of common ions to deduce the formula of a compound

C3.1e construct balanced ionic equations

C3.1f describe the physical states of products and reactants using state symbols (s, l, g and aq)

C3.1g recall and use the definitions of the Avogadro constant (in standard form) and of the mole to include the calculation of the mass of one atom/molecule

C3.1h explain how the mass of a given substance is related to the amount of that substance in moles and vice versa

C3.1i recall and use the law of conservation of mass

C3.1j explain any observed changes in mass in non-enclosed systems during a chemical reaction and explain them using the particle model

C3.1k deduce the stoichiometry of an equation from the masses of reactants and products and explain the effect of a limiting quantity of a reactant

C3.1l use a balanced equation to calculate masses of reactants or products

 C3.2 Energetics

CM3.2i interpretation of charts and graphs when dealing with reaction profiles

CM3.2ii arithmetic computation when calculating energy changes

C3.2a distinguish between endothermic and exothermic reactions on the basis of the temperature change of the surroundings

C3.2b draw and label a reaction profile for an exothermic and an endothermic reaction to include activation energy, energy change, reactants and products

C3.2c explain activation energy as the energy needed for a reaction to occur

C3.2d calculate energy changes in a chemical reaction by considering bond making and bond breaking energies

 

C3.3 Types of chemical reactions

CM3.3i arithmetic computation, ratio, percentage and multistep calculations permeates quantitative chemistry

C3.3a explain reduction and oxidation in terms of loss or gain of oxygen, identifying which species are oxidised and which are reduced to include the concept of oxidising agent and reducing agent

C3.3b explain reduction and oxidation in terms of gain or loss of electrons, identifying which species are oxidised and which are reduced

C3.3c recall that acids form hydrogen ions when they dissolve in water and solutions of alkalis contain hydroxide ions

C3.3d describe neutralisation as acid reacting with alkali or a base to form a salt plus water

C3.3e recognise that aqueous neutralisation reactions can be generalised to hydrogen ions reacting with hydroxide ions to form water

C3.3f recall that carbonates and some metals react with acids and write balanced equations predicting products from given reactants

C3.3g use and explain the terms dilute and concentrated (amount of substance) and weak and strong (degree of ionisation) in relation to acids to include ratio of amount of acid to volume of solution

C3.3h recall that relative acidity and alkalinity are measured by pH

C3.3i describe neutrality and relative acidity and alkalinity in terms of the effect of the concentration of hydrogen ions on the numerical value of pH (whole numbers only) to include pH of titration curves

C3.3j recall that as hydrogen ion concentration increases by a factor of ten the pH value of a solution decreases by a factor of one

C3.3k describe techniques and apparatus used to measure pH

 C3.4 Electrolysis

CM3.4i arithmetic computation and ratio when determining empirical formulae, balancing equations

C3.4a recall that metals (or hydrogen) are formed at the cathode and non-metals are formed at the anode in electrolysis using inert electrodes to include the terms cations and anions

C3.4b predict the products of electrolysis of binary ionic compounds in the molten state to include compounds such as NaCl

C3.4c describe competing reactions in the electrolysis of aqueous solutions of ionic compounds in terms of the different species present to include the electrolysis of aqueous NaCl and CuSO4 using inert electrodes

C3.4d describe electrolysis in terms of the ions present and reactions at the electrodes

C3.4e describe the technique of electrolysis using inert and non-inert electrodes

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