C6 Global challenges

C6.1 Improving processes and products

C6.1a explain, using the position of carbon in the reactivity series, the principles of industrial processes used to extract metals, including extraction of a non-ferrous metal (C6.1a in Combined science)

C6.1b explain why and how electrolysis is used to extract some metals from their ores (C6.1b in Combined science

C6.1c evaluate alternative biological methods of metal extraction to include bacterial and phytoextraction (C6.1c in Combined science)

6.1d explain the trade-off between rate of production of a desired product and position of equilibrium in some industrially important processes to include the Haber process and Contact process

C6.1e interpret graphs of reaction conditions versus rate

C6.1f explain how the commercially used conditions for an industrial process are related to the availability and cost of raw materials and energy supplies, control of equilibrium position and rate

C6.1g explain the importance of the Haber process in agricultural production

C6.1h compare the industrial production of fertilisers with laboratory syntheses of the same products to include preparation of potassium sulfate or ammonium sulfate using a titration method

C6.1i recall the importance of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium compounds in agricultural production

C6.1j describe the industrial production of fertilisers as several integrated processes using a variety of raw materials to include ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate

C6.1k describe the basic principles in carrying out a life-cycle assessment of a material or product (C6.1d in Combined science)

C6.1l interpret data from a life-cycle assessment of a material or product (C6.1e in Combined science)

C6.1m describe a process where a material or product is recycled for a different use, and explain why this is viable (C6.1f in Combined science)

C6.1n evaluate factors that affect decisions on recycling (C6.1g in Combined science)

C6.1o describe the composition of some important alloys in relation to their properties and uses to include steel, brass, bronze, solder, duralumin

C6.1p describe the process of corrosion and the conditions which cause corrosion to include iron and other metals

C6.1q explain how mitigation of corrosion is achieved by creating a physical barrier to oxygen and water and by sacrificial protection

C6.1r compare quantitatively the physical properties of glass and clay ceramics, polymers, composites and metals

C6.1s explain how the properties of materials are related to their uses and select appropriate materials given details of the usage required

 C6.2 Organic chemistry

 

 C6.2a recognise functional groups and identify members of the same homologous series to include homologous series, of alkanes, alkenes, alcohols and carboxylic acids

C6.2b name and draw the structural formulae, using fully displayed formulae, of the first four members of the straight chain alkanes, alkenes, alcohols and carboxylic acids

C6.2c predict the formulae and structures of products of reactions of the first fourand other given members of the homologous series of alkanes, alkenes and alcohols to include combustion; addition of bromine and hydrogen across a double bond; oxidation of alcohols to carboxylic acids using potassium manganate(VII)

C6.2d recall the basic principles of addition polymerisation by reference to the functional group in the monomer and the repeating units in the polymer

C6.2e explain the basic principles of condensation polymerisation to include reference to the functional groups of the monomers, the minimum number of functional groups within a monomer, the number of repeating units in the polymer, and simultaneous formation of a small molecule, e.g. a polyester or polyamide, using block diagrams to represent polymers

C6.2f describe practical techniques to make a polymer by condensation

C6.2g deduce the structure of an addition polymer from a simple alkene monomer and vice versa the following representation of a polymer [repeat unit]n

C6.2h recall that DNA is a polymer made from four different monomers called nucleotides and that other important naturally-occurring polymers are based on sugars and amino-acids to include the names of the nucleotides

C6.2i recall that it is the generality of reactions of functional groups that determine the reactions of organic compounds

C6.2j describe the separation of crude oil by fractional distillation to include the names of the fractions (C6.1h in Combined science)

C6.2k explain the separation of crude oil by fractional distillation to include molecular size and intermolecular forces (C6.1i in Combined science)

C6.2l describe the fractions as largely a mixture of compounds of formula CnH2n+2 which are members of the alkane homologous series (C6.1jin Combined science)

C6.2m recall that crude oil is a main source of hydrocarbons and is a feedstock for the petrochemical industry (C6.1k in Combined science)

C6.2n explain how modern life is crucially dependent upon hydrocarbons and recognise that crude oil is a finite resource (C6.1l in Combined science)

C6.2o describe the production of materials that are more useful by cracking to include conditions and reasons for cracking and some of the useful materials produced (C6.1m in Combined science)

C6.2p recall that a chemical cell produces a potential difference until the reactants are used up

C6.2q evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of hydrogen/oxygen and other fuel cells for given uses to include the chemistry of the hydrogen/oxygen fuel cell.

 C6.3 Interpreting and interacting with Earth systems

C6.3a interpret evidence for how it is thought the atmosphere was originally formed to include knowledge of how the composition of the atmosphere has changed over time (C6.2a in Combined science)

C6.3b describe how it is thought an oxygen-rich atmosphere developed over time (C6.2b in Combined science)

C6.3c describe the greenhouse effect in terms of the interaction of radiation with matter within the atmosphere (C6.2c in Combined science)

C6.3d evaluate the evidence for additional anthropogenic (human activity) causes of climate change and describe the uncertainties in the evidence base to include the correlation between change in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration and the consumption of fossil fuels (C6.2d in Combined science)

C6.3e describe the potential effects of increased levels of carbon dioxide and methane on the Earth’s climate and how these effects may be mitigated to include consideration of scale, risk and environmental implications (C6.2e in Combined science)

C6.3f describe the major sources of carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen and particulates in the atmosphere and explain the problems caused by increased amounts of these substances (C6.2f in Combined science)

C6.3g describe the principal methods for increasing the availability of potable water in terms of the separation techniques used to include ease of treatment of waste, ground and salt water (C6.2g in Combined science)