4. Geometry and measures

Properties and constructions

G1 use conventional terms and notations: points, lines, vertices, edges, planes, parallel lines, perpendicular lines, right angles, polygons, regular polygons and polygons with reflection and/or rotation symmetries; use the standard conventions for labelling and referring to the sides and angles of triangles; draw diagrams from written description
G2 use the standard ruler and compass constructions (perpendicular bisector of a line segment, constructing a perpendicular to a given line from/at a given point, bisecting a given angle); use these to construct given figures and solve loci problems; know that the perpendicular distance from a point to a line is the shortest distance to the line
G3 apply the properties of angles at a point, angles at a point on a straight line, vertically opposite angles; understand and use alternate and corresponding angles on parallel lines; derive and use the sum of angles in a triangle (e.g. to deduce and use the angle sum in any polygon, and to derive properties of regular polygons).

G4 derive and apply the properties and definitions of: special types of quadrilaterals, including square, rectangle, parallelogram, trapezium, kite and rhombus; and triangles and other plane figures using appropriate language
G5 use the basic congruence criteria for triangles (SSS, SAS, ASA, RHS)
G6 apply angle facts, triangle congruence, similarity and properties of quadrilaterals to conjecture and derive results about angles and sides, including Pythagoras’ theorem and the fact that the base angles of an isosceles triangle are equal, and use known results to obtain simple proofs
G7 identify, describe and construct congruent and similar shapes, including on coordinate axes, by considering rotation, reflection, translation and enlargement (including fractional and negative scale factors)
G8 describe the changes and invariance achieved by combinations of rotations, reflections and translations
G9 identify and apply circle definitions and properties, including: centre, radius, chord, diameter, circumference, tangent, arc, sector and segment.

G10 apply and prove the standard circle theorems concerning angles, radii, tangents and chords, and use them to prove related results
G11 solve geometrical problems on coordinate axes
G12 identify properties of the faces, surfaces, edges and vertices of: cubes, cuboids, prisms, cylinders, pyramids, cones and spheres
G13 construct and interpret plans and elevations of 3D shapes.

Mensuration and calculation

G14 use standard units of measure and related concepts (length, area, volume/capacity, mass, time, money, etc.)
G15 measure line segments and angles in geometric figures, including interpreting maps and scale drawings and use of bearings
G16 know and apply formulae to calculate: area of triangles, parallelograms, trapezia; volume of cuboids and other right prisms (including cylinders)
G17 know the formulae: circumference of a circle = 2πr = πd , area of a circle = π

${r}^{2}$

; calculate: perimeters of 2D shapes, including circles; areas of circles and composite shapes; surface area and volume of spheres, pyramids, cones and composite solids
G18 calculate arc lengths, angles and areas of sectors of circles.

G19 apply the concepts of congruence and similarity, including the relationships between lengths, areas and volumes in similar figures
G20 know the formulae for: Pythagoras’ theorem

${a}^{2}+{b}^{2}={c}^{2}$

, and the trigonometric ratios,

,

,  and

; apply them to find angles and lengths in right-angled triangles and, where possible, general triangles in two and three dimensional figures.

G21 know the exact values of sin θ and cos θ for θ = 0°, 30°, 45°, 60° and 90°; know the exact value of tan θ for θ = 0°, 30°, 45° and 60°
G22 know and apply the sine rule

and cosine rule,

to find unknown lengths and angles.
G23 know and apply

to calculate the area, sides or angles of any triangle.

Vectors

G24 describe translations as 2D vectors
G25 apply addition and subtraction of vectors, multiplication of vectors by a scalar, and diagrammatic and column representations of vectors; use vectors to construct geometric arguments and proofs